Monday, January 20, 2020

Jane Addams Essay -- essays research papers

Jane Addams founded Hull House in 1889, along with her friend Ellen Starr. Jane had a very compassionate heart from the time she was a young girl. Everywhere she went, Jane had a desire to help people less fortunate than herself. Jane's father helped shape her to become more charitable to others less fortunate. Even as a young girl Jane wanted to know why all people did not live in nice homes with yards like her own. One day she saw a part of town that was run down and she could hardly believe that people could live in such "horrid little houses. That day Jane decided that she wanted to live in a large house in the middle of an awful place as she had seen. Jane wanted to do this so she could make a difference in the lives of people who lived there. Jane Addams was born on September 6, 1860, in Cedarville, Illinois. One year later the War between the North and the South started. That same year the telegraph lines reached coast to coast. While Jane was a young girl, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. Jane had the opportunity to go to Rockford Female Seminary at the age of seventeen. It was there at Rockford that Jane decided she wanted to be a missionary in the United States to help the poor. Jane went to Rockford for four years and was an excellent student. She received the highest grades out of every member in her class. Jane enjoyed having fun but was also of a serious nature. After Jane graduated from Rockford, she decided she wanted to be a doctor and work among the poor. Jane went to Philadelphia to go to medical school and because she worked so hard, she became ill and a pain in her back, from her childhood returned. Jane ended up having to stay in bed, strapped to a board, for six months so her back could heal. After Jane recovered from her illness, she still had to wear a tight brace to stop the strain on her back. This brace helped Jane so she was not in pain all the time. Her doctor thought a trip to Europe would help her recover, therefore in August 1882; Jane went to Europe for a vacation. In Europe Jane visited many places, including Ireland, Scotland, and different cities in England. Jane enjoyed London and particularly enjoyed a wax museum called Madame Tussaud's waxworks. One Saturday evening in London Jane and her friends were in a poor part of town, and someone told them they would see the late Saturday evening food sale if th... ... changed. She helped with the law that women could only work an eight-hour day, helped set up the first juvenile court, and helped to change the housing for the poor. They even started the first public playground in Chicago. In 1931, Jane Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her work in Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She served as president of the league from 1915 to 1929. Over the years, Hull house expanded to be a full block. Jane influenced many people. On May 1, 1935, when Jane Addams died, a large number of those people were there to say good-by. Jane had given her life and all she had to make the lives of the less fortunate better. Blackstock, Josephine. (1950). Jane Addams. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson and Company. Addams, Jane. (1993). The new Grolier CD ROM encyclopedia. Grolier Electronic Publishing Co. Addams, Jane. (1991). World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago, IL. World Book Publishing Co Hull House. (1991). World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago, IL. World Book Publishing Co Hull House. (1993). The new Grolier CD ROM encyclopedia. Grolier Electronic Publishing Co. Nobel Prizes. (1991). World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago, IL. World Book Publishing Co

Sunday, January 12, 2020

America Movil †The Jaguar’s Next Move

After a deep analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of America Movil, and considering the forces that are currently driving the growth of the wireless telecom market in Latin America and the rest of the world, we have elaborated certain recommendations concerning the company’s future strategic decisions which, in our opinion, should be considered in order to consolidate the corporation’s current position as a global leader in this industry.Regarding the issue of the possible expansion of America Movil into new markets; the analysis shows that the best strategy for the company to follow, considering its current investments, assets and the forecasts for each region, is to focus on the organic growth and to continue strengthening its position in the Latin American market, where the corporation has been able to develop strong brand awareness among the consumers and where the cultural, social and economic aspects of the region represent an advantage against competitors.Reg arding the possibility of a future merge between America Movil and Telmex International, there is no doubt that the synergy that both companies could generate is enormous, nevertheless, due to the basic yet significant differences in these telecom segments, the best option is to keep both companies as separate entities while allowing them to work together by the establishment of joint ventures and strategic alliances in specific projects. Sincerely Yours, Author Organic Growth against Positioning in New MarketsAfter quite a long â€Å"shopping spree† that lasted over seven years, from 2000 to 2007, in which America Movil invested and acquired assets all over Latin America, becoming the largest and most powerful corporation in the region; today the company needs to decide whether to continue its expansion through acquisitions – either in the same region or in different potential markets such as Europe or Asia – or to settle down and focus on getting the most out of its current investments.To determine which of these options brings the most benefits for America Movil, we will analyze several aspects of the company and the environment in which it competes, as well forecasts, opportunities and threats that come with each one of these options. Analysis of America Movil and its current position in the Latin American MarketAmerica Movil currently holds a privileged competitive position in the Latin American Market, with strong presence in 16 different countries that at the same time, share a wide variety of cultural, economical and social aspects. These common characteristics represent an advantage for America Movil against foreign competitors due to the experience and proven success of the company in positioning itself and understanding the dynamics in this region.Some of the countries in which the corporation competes, are currently in an advanced stage of development regarding the wireless market – such as Argentina, Chile, El Salvador and Uruguay, where the wireless percentage of penetration is above 85% of the population – while others represent an attractive opportunity of growth – such as Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru and Puerto Rico – where the percentage of penetration ranges from 41% to 75% of the population.The impact of these percentages can be better appreciated in exhibit 1, where it shows that the total number of potential clients in the region can be assumed to be above 150 million, a number which exceeds the total number of customers currently affiliated with America Movil – 141 million-, especially in countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, where the company already has a relatively high percentage of the market share.The total number of potential customers just in these four countries is almost 130 million, 85% of the total number of potential customers. As important as the size of the market available for this corporation, is the distribution of revenue that each one of these countries represents. This distribution can be better appreciated in exhibit 2. What the trend is showing is that the percentage of revenue from Mexico, the most important market for America Movil, is decreasing compared to other countries in which the company operates.From 2004 to 2008 the participation of Mexico has reduced from 54% to 39%, meaning that over half of the revenue of the corporation today comes from its operations in foreign markets, emphasizing their increasing importance relative to the domestic market, which importance has decreased in over 15% while the Brazilian, Caribbean, Andean and Mercosur markets have rose between 4% and 7% each. However, as we can appreciate in exhibit 3, the overall behavior of the Latin American Market shows that it has been in an important phase of growth in the past 4 years, from 2004 to 2008, where revenues have increased over 151%.These numbers together support t he arguments of both, the strong position that America Movil currently has in the Latin American market, and of the success of the company in understanding the dynamics of the Latin American economy and culture; which translate in a competitive advantage over its main competitor in the region, Telefonica, and other European and North American based corporations that have struggled in positioning themselves in the countries where America Movil has established.Current Strategy in Latin America The success factors of America Movil strategy in this region can be summarized in two main categories; the penetration strategy and the positioning strategy. Penetration Strategy The penetration strategy developed by the company has been clear since the beginning; the acquisition of assets in the different Latin American countries for a low price.This strategy has benefited the corporation by providing them with the required infrastructure to operate at a relatively low cost, taking advantage of opportunities generated by the failure of other companies to develop a strong position in the market and taking advantage of the liberalization of the Latin American economies. Examples of these acquisitions are the purchase of BCP from BellSouth Corp. (USA) and Verbier (Brazil) in 2003 for $643 million and American Movil Peru from TIM International (Italy) for $503.4 million. The main reasons for the retreat of these companies from the region were either difficulties at their domestic markets or failed business strategies, two factors that America Movil had under control, with a strong domestic market performance in Mexico and with a profitable business strategy in the region. Positioning Strategy The second factor that drove the success of the corporation in the countries where it penetrated was the positioning strategy.The strategy to obtain a strong position in the markets where it competes was developed considering the economic situation of the majority of the Latin American p opulation, which is relatively weaker and more unstable and than the one in markets such as North America or Europe. With this in mind, America Movil developed a system of pre-paid cards, which to this date, has been the driving force of the company’s growth in the region.The advantage of this model lies in the fact that the corporation discovered that Latin Americans were more likely to become users of wireless communication services if they had the opportunity to pay for the service as they required it; avoiding long term contracts and potentially escalating debts, which, because of the unstable economical situation, could become impossible to pay.The customers were not the only ones beneficiated, since with this model, America Movil became able to considerably reduce collection costs and to avoid invoice defaults that on the long run, could have affected the revenues of the company as well as the number of their clients. There are, however, two main weaknesses in this mode l, the first one lying in the fact that this strategy can be relatively easily copied by its competitors and in the long run, it doesn’t represent a significant competitive advantage over them.The second disadvantage is that the revenues generated by this strategy are lower than the ones obtained by a post-paid model, which mean that its profitability is based on the volume. Nevertheless, this is currently not a problem for the company since over 83% of its customers are using the pre-paid option. Forecasts of the Wireless Market in Latin America As appreciated in exhibit 1, there are currently a huge number of unattended potential customers in the Latin American Market.This can be assumed by noticing that the overall penetration is 66%, with countries such as Argentina with an astonishing 97% penetration percentage while others important markets such as Brazil and Mexico are about 65%, a number that can be largely increased considering the pre-paid strategy used by America M ovil, which simplifies and encourages the use of its service among the population.As seen in exhibit 4, according to the case, the forecast for the year 2012 expects an increase from 66% to 76% in the number of subscribers in the wireless market; this represents an increase of almost 50 million new customers, which, as analyzed earlier, are mostly expected to come from four countries: Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which combined, have a population of unsubscribed potential customers of almost 130 million, while all of the other countries barely reach 22 million.This information can help the company focus their efforts in the markets mentioned before, while maintaining a relatively stable growth in the others, focusing mostly not in attracting new customers but in increasing the profitability of each one of them. Analysis and Forecasts of the Wireless Market in the rest of the world After analyzing the benefits of focusing on the organic growth of the company, it is also importa nt to consider the option of expanding further into new non-natural markets for America Movil.The options available are the Asian, European and the Middle East/Africa and North American Market, where the company currently has a small operation. The main advantage of the Asian market is definitely its size; as the continent with the larger population, over 3,879,000,000 according to the World Atlas’ estimates of 2006, and over 10 times the population in South America; it’s definitely the most attractive market to consider. Nevertheless, there are two main barriers that might decrease the attractiveness of trying to penetrate in this market; the competitors and the enormous cultural differences between Asia and Latin America.The competition in Asia represent a huge threat for newcomers, since is the domestic market of China Mobile, the largest wireless corporation in the world with over $275 billion in revenue and the financial power to overwhelm any new entrant. In addi tion to this, the fact that, as in Latin America, America Movil is familiarized with the economic, social and cultural aspects of the population, China Mobile has a huge advantage and experience with the Asian culture.Europe is also another important market to consider, and the one that America Movil has been closer to penetrate in; however, the same problems arise, with the presence of Vodafone, a British corporation with over $152 Billion in revenue and the advantage of competing in a market in which the company is more familiar with. This in addition to the fact that, as stated in the case, Europe doesn’t seem to be ready to open to competitors from the new world, which mean that America Movil is going to have more trouble penetrating with its acquisitions strategy.Finally, North America doesn’t seem to be an attractive market due to its saturation and low expected growth of only 1. 2% and in the Middle East and Africa America Movil may end up making the same mistak es made by European and North American Corporations in Latin America, which is a weak positioning strategy. These are the reasons why the most feasible strategy is to focus on the organic growth, since the strengths that the company has in Latin America, specially the knowledge of the market, can become weaknesses when trying to expand to new markets where strong competitors already have the advantage of experience and economic power.Merger between America Movil and Telmex International The rapid technological changes in the telecommunications industry and the emergence of new players, combined with the reduction of traditional entry barriers and the rise of alternative service providers are forces that currently represent a huge threat for both America Movil and Telmex International. This is the reason why, taking advantage of being part of Carlos Slim’s Holdings, both companies should be able to establish synergy in the markets where they compete in order to offer a combina tion of services that would be more difficult, if not impossible, to provide by separate.Nevertheless, due to the significant differences in issues such as the infrastructure and strategies required to operate, a merger could not be the best option, however this doesn’t mean that both America Movil and Telmex International are not able to develop joint ventures or strategic alliances while working in specific project that might, in the long-term, increase their profitability, competitiveness and presence in the Latin American Markets.New trends in telecommunications such as the triple play which offers voice, date and video are rapidly acquiring popularity and obtaining an important share of the market, if Telmex International and America Movil can combine these with the wireless service, there is no doubt that they will obtain an important advantage in any of the countries where they establish.Cited Works Rullan, Samantha. America Movil, The Making of a Mexican Global Latina . 2008. INSEAD The Business School for the World America Movil. â€Å"2008 Annual Report. † 2008. 29th April 2010 . World Atlas. Continents of the World. 2006. 29th April 2010 .

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Physical Education during The Enlightenment History and...

From kindergarten to twelfth grade, one may be required to take many different types of physical education and health classes. In the first few years they more than likely would have learned some of the basic movements: hop, skip, jump, and gallop. As the years pass, they would go on to learn how to play different sports and proceed to specialize in different aspects of sports. Today the United States is facing an epidemic in which parents could outlive their children due to unhealthy bodies. The physical well being of the younger generation is a hot topic in many different school districts, as many children are not active enough. However physical education was not always promoted to children throughout history. One of the first†¦show more content†¦One of the main focuses during this time was the concentration on science, mainly regarding the human body and health. Previously the church had seen physical activity as a negative aspect to life. â€Å"The majority of Christians believed that to participate in athletics or engage in physical training to glorify the body would contaminate the body, which housed the soul, and would make the soul impure.† Although this is not true for all Christians, many did believe that it was their duty to purify their bodies and fulfill Gods plans for their body. Before the Age of enlightenment, physical activity was primarily used as, â€Å"a way for young men to develop the skills and strength necessary to be a warrior.† During this time the majority of society was receiving their physical activity through performing common household chores and tending farming land. The Age of Enlightenment brought many new experiments to the forefront, although not always in the eyes of the public. Behind closed doors philosophers, soon to become considered scientists, were beginning to perform autopsies and researching how bones work in the body. While research of the body was being performed many new theories began to evolve. Concentration on public health and exercise began to become a large issue throughout many countries. Physical education was beginning to be taught in the classroom, however â€Å"where it did exist it was usually associated with education of theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie Kabuki 3062 Words   |  13 Pagesrefined that it was considered inaccessible and reserved for the educated upper classes. Kabuki was developed by the rising middle class as popular entertainment, and included stylized fighting, aerial stunts, exaggerated makeup and costuming, and physical and verbal comedy. 2. Nixon in China - Nixon in China is an American opera portraying President Nixon’s historic visit to China. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

Autobiography Narrative - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1202 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/03/13 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Autobiography Essay Did you like this example? My name starts with the most recognized flower in the nation and the most common name of people, however, I am original. My name is Jasmine Alexander. The dream I have holds the most emotional and special moment in my life. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Autobiography Narrative" essay for you Create order In childhood, thats when I discovered I had the desire to dance. From that point on, that was all I ever wanted. This narrative will discuss the history of dance and how it relates to me, the hardship I had in finding a sound dance school, and how my patience led its way to find a dance school with a different outcome than others. The passion I have for ballet is not summarized, however, I had never worked with an instructor before also I had never danced before. The reality of this crippled the imagination of my dream of ever being onstage. My parents and my two older brothers encouraged me, they also told me the pros and cons of being a ballerina. The things I had to sacrifice and gain in return, they were all stressful to me. Reaching my goals with obstacles in the mix was hard and still is mental. The best advocator I have is my mother and with her prior experience in ballet, it was even better. Whenever my mother would train me, she always told me to show her the five positions also show her my pointers. This has a connection with its history. Long before this era, ballet originated within the 15th century around the renaissance era. This type of dance started in Florence, France, that was adored by many noblemen. When ballerinas danced on their toes, in France, it was called Romantic Ballet according to Christopher Muscato, it states The origins of ballet can be traced back to 15th century Italy, when the peninsula was in the height of its period of artistic, cultural, and scientific growth known as the Renaissance. It was in the tradition of early 19th century Romantic ballet that dancing on the toes, or en pointe, first became a standard part of the performance, reserved for female dancers. After a family discussion on matters dealing with money supply and proper attire, Mom and I went school hunting. The first school we came upon was local to our area. The school was small, and the inside had an office at the front and classrooms in the back where ballerinas practiced. My mother started communicating with the head instructor of the place, where she started to tell her all about my dream to dance. The head instructor told my mother her requirements and standards for her class. My mother and the instructor made a deal where she paid her every month to teach me the basics. When I first started, my mother was dropping me off for dance class, I was running a little late, however, as soon as we arrived, we had to wait a whole hour for the instructor. Right then, my mother and I saw everything we needed to see. The ballerinas werent wearing proper attire, they were all chatting outside the classroom instead of going to their next class, everything the instructor said they were doing they wasnt. The experience was more like high school than a dance school. For those reasons, my mother and I quit, we resulted back into finding another dance school. Years later, I began to lose hope in finding a sound school and I began to believe it was more like a fantasy than reality. That is when mom came across a different school that was apart of a gym and another class, that was all in one building. The inside had old scuffed walls and an office in front. The ballet class was across from the office to the left. Once again, we waited for the instructor and once she came, we started to talk. The instructor started to ask me what my name and age is. I told her my name is Jasmine Alexander and I am 15 years old. The instructor then said, okay, youre fifteen, so youll be learning with others around your age. My mother then jumped to the point and asked what her requirements and standards for her class are. The instructor enlightened my mother on everything, however, something out of the conversation stuck out to my mother and me. The instructor did not care about what size the ballerinas were and she didnt mind if they come as they are. This went against everything she said she stood for, also, this went against the morals of a sound prestige school, we were looking for. The experience I had out of this one was not productive or sound. Months went by, discouraged is what I felt at the time. I thought I was never going to find a proper dance school, at least, thats what I thought. My mother took me to another school a few minutes up the street from our house. The school was in a neighborhood called Providence. The school was small. However, in the inside it was huge studios, one after the other, it was truly amazing. We talked to the instructor and gotten a different attitude about how she feels about dance. The instructor educated me on the determination it will take. The instructor also educated me on everything I had to do in her class and what classes I need to get to the pre-professionals stage, where most ballerinas my age was. I enlightened the instructor about my passion for dance and it thrilled her to know such passion of mine. The instructor allowed me to have a free lesson of ballet to see how I adjust. With this, we were able to sit in other classes to see how things work. After this experience, my mother and I both said, this is it. What I learned from this experience is you must put in the effort. My goal is to learn how to dance, as I said previously, ever since childhood I loved everything about dance and the making of it. Whenever a ballerina performed on stage, I knew that would be me. The hardship I had in finding a sound school that could teach me, was one of the obstacles in my way of success. However, I learned that patience and good deeds go a long way since we couldnt find a proper school at first, it didnt mean we failed. As others say, little progress is better than none. At many attempts I felt failure, however, I did not lose hope. When I founded the school I was looking for, everything I have done paid off, going through the trouble of finding the school of my dream was worth it. The effort my family and me put into this goal made every move risky and challenging, but it proved after all tribulations were over, that anything is possible, only if you keep going forward and learn from mistakes, that is when success is truly accessible. References: Christopher Muscato, https://study.com/academy/lesson/history-of-ballet-timeline-facts.html Prentice Hall, P.H. (2012). Prentice Hall Literature, Common Core Edition, Grade 11. Retrieved from: https://courses.jmhs.com/d2l/le/content/7390/fullscreen/13586/View

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Project Start Date Will Commence - 1690 Words

Initiation Phase Project start date will commence July 11, 2016 and conclude on March 24, 2017. The initiation phase of this project will consist of reviewing historical data of both HRBT and JRB. The data will include material was acclimated to build the bridge and tunnel along with a data analysis of life cycle deterioration. The feasible and prudent information from the historical research will assist engineers in exploring the undertaking of preservation opportunities of the bridge and tunnel which could protract the life cycle, and preserve capital for future expenditures while ensuring both the bridge and the tunnel safety for the motorist. The project duration will be 257 calendar days with 249 days genuine project work excluding†¦show more content†¦The study will address a number of alternative routes for motorist traveling to and from naval bases, the Peninsula and Isle of Wight County. Every effort will be made to minimize impact to motorists during the project for commuter convenience during the week with restricted lane closures during off-peak hours. The survey team will evaluate holiday travelers that utilize the tunnel and bridge; which holiday motorist travel the most and what are the peak hours. Logistics resources will propose materials required, turnaround time for material deliverables and cost. Planning Phase The planning phase for the HRBT will consist of the following: paving operations, removing and replacing de-bonded tunnel wall tiles, and repair cracks in concrete surfaces; re-line the existing water line and provide new equipment for the existing tunnel fire hydrant system; repair leaking expansion joints in the tunnel, and upgrade Tunnel Life Safety Systems such as a Fire Suppression system, Tunnel Lighting, Communications, Floodgate drainage, and Emergency Egress. The steel grids on the James River Bridge were replaced back in 2012. Over the years, many of the original studs on the draw span have fallen off or worn down to the point that they need to be replaced again. The steel grids are in major need of improvement for safety and environment reasons. Mark Marshall an Isle of Wight County Sheriff sent a letter to the Virginia Department of Transportation

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

The Great Music Debate Classical vs. Non-Classical free essay sample

While is it is true that classical music is more complex, challenging and demanding, the merits of music are not based on rational or irrational/abstract discourse rather it is based on taste. Classical music cannot be listened with the same inattentiveness and distractions as other musical styles because there are many intricate details within classical music that set the ambiance and characters. To appreciate classical music properly you must give it your full attention, as well as some knowledge of musical form and structure. Due to a lack of words, the actions are transferred in motions, with the use of notations and chords. For instance, it was believed that specific chords and keys in classical music would arouse different moods based on the sound. Beethovens 5th in C Minor, signified loss, coldness, and sorrow. However, it is the beauty within the simplicity of music that makes it that remarkably attractive and catchy. We will write a custom essay sample on The Great Music Debate: Classical vs. Non-Classical or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Some classical music is as immediately compelling as pop, for instance, the first bars of Beethovens Fifth being more recognizable than those of Pink Floods Hey You. But on the whole, a symphony is undeniably much more complex and emending than any Battles songs such as the Yellow Submarine.A good piece of music should be able to play with ones anticipation. Although, complexity may make classical music different and more intellectually interesting, it does not necessarily make it more aesthetically pleasing than pop or modern music. In fact, It raises the important question within musical debates of substance as opposed to pleasure to the ear. The feeling you get in your stomach or chest when youre moved by the music you consider great, whether Its Mailer or Metallic, stems from the emotion rived in heart not the head.It Is obvious that pop music and modern day music does less with their harmonies and melodies than the works of great classical composers. There are Imperative elements which most music must cover, whether It is classical or pop music. First one Is the call and response aspect, or the opening and closure, which starts at one place and ends In a different place which puts the whole piece In a circle. Simply, It Is what Jazz musicians would call taking a ride In a car or a bus. Second, Is the stress of dynamics and the transition because fragile soft ices to loud and drastic elements. It Is Imperative Is It a diverse as much as It Is wide-ranging. The last Is the stress of time signature and drastic transitions throughout the music with the use of different rests, pitches, and tempos. Music Is not necessarily about the most complex and abstract piece of art being more appealing and celebrated than the simple melodic song, rather, music Is about clear expression of emotions and actions. It Is unarguable that all forms of music allow you to change your sense of time as well as the change of the meaning of a piece wealth the context of time.The core of the genius within great music Is the flawless execution of music which Is simply beautiful and beautifully simple. It Is not necessarily defined by complication, but the ability to create or discover marvels and phenomenon, however simple they may be, beyond the art of previously created music. The Great Music Debate: Classical vs. . Non Classical By Angelina make it more aesthetically pleasing than pop or modern music. In fact, it raises the music you consider great, whether its Mailer or Metallic, stems from the emotion derived in heart not the head.It is obvious that pop music and modern day music imposers. There are imperative elements which most music must cover, whether it is classical or pop music. First one is the call and response aspect, or the opening and closure, which starts at one place and ends in a different place which puts the whole piece in a circle. Simply, it is what Jazz musicians would call taking a ride in a car or a bus. Second, is the stress of dynamics and the transition because fragile soft pieces to loud and drastic elements. It is imperative is it a diverse as much as it is wide-ranging.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Standardized Testing Essay Example For Students

Standardized Testing Essay Standardized Testing Essay is used practically worldwide for all sorts of various criterion. A standardized test could be used for getting into a top of the line college, or to see if you meet the requirements for a job. Such tests include the well known ACTs and SATs. There are many We will write a custom essay on Standardized Testing specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now different ways that standardized tests can be graded. Norm-Referenced, and Criterion-Referenced forms of grading are just a couple of the types of tests. Tests can also be easily misused and are often protested. Often times in order to persue a certain career, before you are employed it is necessary to see how you rate in comparison to the company?s standards. If you were to, for instance, become a pizza maker for Pizza Hut, they may give you a test in order to make sure that you make the pizza according to their standards. In order to be a successful business and keep customers coming back for more, there has to be an order to the way all things are processed. If a customer were to come in one day and get a large pepperoni pizza, and there was a certain number of pepperonis on the pizza, they will expect that to be the same every time. The number of pepperonis on a pizza is a standard number. Standard meaning a degree or level of requirement, excellence, or attainment (www.Dictionary.com). The company may show you how to make all the types of pizza to the standards that they have preset, then have you make the pizzas they have shown you the same way. If the standard is eighty pepperonis on a large pizza, then you will be required to put eighty pepperonis on the pizza. If the standard amount of sauce used on the pizza is one ladle full, then you would use one ladle full of sauce. Standards are set in stone until later possible being re-evaluated and changed. Until such an event happens however, standards will stay the same. If on a test, you are asked to add two and two together. The answer you attain is always going to be four, because that is the set standard. Two plus two does not equal five simply because standards say it does not. Standards are used so that everything stays in order. ?Academic standards are clear written expectations of what every child should know and be able to do at specific grade levels. In Wisconsin, the standards were written for English/Language Arts, Math. Social Studies and Science at the 4th, 8th and 12th grade levels. The Wisconsin Model Academic Standards were written by educators, business people and parents from throughout Wisconsin serving on committees under the oversight of the Governor?s Council on Model Academic Standards,? (www.fairtest.org). Bush wants tests to be used to tell if in fact the student has taken in the standard amount of knowledge they should have while in that grade. Getting eighty out of one-hundred questions would not be bad neither. That is because often times, questions are thrown in that may not have necessarily been something the student would have learned during his third grade year but rather his fourth grade year. If the student does answer those questions correctly the student is advanced and know more than the standard amount of information that was taught to them. Under Bush?s plan, if a large amount of students are not meeting state standards of what they should be learning, then tax money will be yanked away from that school. In this case, it is crucial that all teachers do their job in teaching children the standard information required to be known by a specific grade or skill level. .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 , .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .postImageUrl , .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 , .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0:hover , .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0:visited , .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0:active { border:0!important; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0:active , .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0 .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5cf3d502be57829ddbf12c788934c3d0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Financial Analysis Essay If the standard information is taught thoroughly and correctly then it should be easy for the student to take a standardized test and come out equal to or ahead of set standards. A Norm-Referenced test compare a person?s score against the scores of a group of people who have already taken the same exam, called the ?norming group.? A NRT (Norm-Referenced Test) is designed to ?rank-order? test takers, or compare students? scores. To make comparing easier, exams are created in which the results end up graphed in a bell-like . Standardized testing Essay Example For Students Standardized testing Essay No issue in the U.S. Education is more controversial than (standardized) testing. Some people view it as the linchpin of serious reform and improvement, others as a menace to quality teaching and learning (Phelps). A tool that educators use to learn about students and their learning capabilities is the standardized test. Standardized tests are designed to give a common measure of a students performance. Popular tests include the SAT, IQ tests, Regents Exams, and the ACT. Three kinds of standardized tests are used frequently in schools: achievement, diagnostic, and aptitude (Woolfolk 550). Achievement tests can be used to help a teacher assess a students strengths and weaknesses in a particular subject. Diagnostic tests are typically given to elementary school students when learning problems are suspected. Aptitude tests are designed to predict how a student will perform in the future. We will write a custom essay on Standardized testing specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now For example, the SAT predicts performance in the first year of college. Standardized tests give educators a standard measure or yardstick because such a large number of students across the country take the same test. These tests are used to tell how well school programs are doing or to give a picture of the skills and abilities of students. Standardized tests; however, are problematic at all ages and levels of schooling. Standardized aptitude tests measure students abilities to learn in school, how well they are likely to succeed in future education. Rather than measuring knowledge of subjects taught in school, these tests measure a broad range of abilities or skills that are considered important to succeed in school. The classroom setting and teacher are the key to assessment. Pressure to produce higher scores leads teachers to focus on material that will be covered by the tests and to exclude everything else. The curriculum is thereby narrowed, which means that some subjects are ignored. Within those that are taught, lower order thinking skills are emphasized. As a result, test scores get inflated while real learning suffers (Phelps). Performance based assessment guarantees an increased understanding of the growth of individual child. Such understanding reduces the need for currently used standardized tests. Standards for Education and Psychological Testing (American Psychological Association) states the definite standards for assessment by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education. It is made up of four major parts: standards for particular applications, technical standards for test construction and evaluation, professional standards for test use, and standards for administrative procedures. A test that is technically adequate meets the criteria for validity, reliability, and norms. Validity is the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of the specific inferences that can be made from the test results. (American Psychological Association 9) Validity is the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Reliability is the extent to which the test results are dependable and consistent. Unrelated to the purpose of the test, errors in measurement can be viewed through inconsistencies in the performance, motivation, or interests of students being tested. Norms can be shown in age or grade equivalence, standard scores, and percentiles. They are generally shown in charts showing the performance groups of students who have taken the test. Norms show the comparison of the performance of new groups of test takers with the samples of students on whom the test was standardized. Goodwin and Driscoll (59-60) note that standardized tests have the following qualities: They provide a systematic procedure for describing behaviors, whether in terms of numbers or categories. They have an established format and set materials. Also, they present the same tasks and require the same response modes from all test takers. At first glance, the reasoning behind todays standardized tests sounds reasonable. In theory, they give every student a solid picture of achievement and an equal opportunity for advancement in education. However, Standardized testing Essay is problematic at all ages and levels of schooling. The problem with standardized tests is that they tend to kill off the kind of education that matters most. .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 , .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .postImageUrl , .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 , .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4:hover , .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4:visited , .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4:active { border:0!important; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4:active , .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4 .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ued00e5d61f3ecac44ef34e06606a33d4:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Dredd Scott Essay After years of memorization of subject matter and tests, who were once intellectually excited grade school children have become either bored or grade obsessed high school students. Anxiety over upcoming tests and a constant concern for . Standardized Testing Essay Example For Students Standardized Testing Essay Standardized Testing Essay is used practically worldwide for all sorts of various criterion. A standardized test could be used for getting into a top of the line college, or to see if you meet the requirements for a job. Such tests include the well known ACTs and SATs. There are many We will write a custom essay on Standardized Testing specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now different ways that standardized tests can be graded. Norm-Referenced, and Criterion-Referenced forms of grading are just a couple of the types of tests. Tests can also be easily misused and are often protested. Often times in order to persue a certain career, before you are employed it is necessary to see how you rate in comparison to the company?s standards. If you were to, for instance, become a pizza maker for Pizza Hut, they may give you a test in order to make sure that you make the pizza according to their standards. In order to be a successful business and keep customers coming back for more, there has to be an order to the way all things are processed. If a customer were to come in one day and get a large pepperoni pizza, and there was a certain number of pepperonis on the pizza, they will expect that to be the same every time. The number of pepperonis on a pizza is a standard number. Standard meaning a degree or level of requirement, excellence, or attainment (www.Dictionary.com). The company may show you how to make all the types of pizza to the standards that they have preset, then have you make the pizzas they have shown you the same way. If the standard is eighty pepperonis on a large pizza, then you will be required to put eighty pepperonis on the pizza. If the standard amount of sauce used on the pizza is one ladle full, then you would use one ladle full of sauce. Standards are set in stone until later possible being re-evaluated and changed. Until such an event happens however, standards will stay the same. If on a test, you are asked to add two and two together. The answer you attain is always going to be four, because that is the set standard. Two plus two does not equal five simply because standards say it does not. Standards are used so that everything stays in order. ?Academic standards are clear written expectations of what every child should know and be able to do at specific grade levels. In Wisconsin, the standards were written for English/Language Arts, Math. Social Studies and Science at the 4th, 8th and 12th grade levels. The Wisconsin Model Academic Standards were written by educators, business people and parents from throughout Wisconsin serving on committees under the oversight of the Governor?s Council on Model Academic Standards,? (www.fairtest.org). Bush wants tests to be used to tell if in fact the student has taken in the standard amount of knowledge they should have while in that grade. Getting eighty out of one-hundred questions would not be bad neither. That is because often times, questions are thrown in that may not have necessarily been something the student would have learned during his third grade year but rather his fourth grade year. If the student does answer those questions correctly the student is advanced and know more than the standard amount of information that was taught to them. Under Bush?s plan, if a large amount of students are not meeting state standards of what they should be learning, then tax money will be yanked away from that school. In this case, it is crucial that all teachers do their job in teaching children the standard information required to be known by a specific grade or skill level. .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 , .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .postImageUrl , .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 , .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25:hover , .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25:visited , .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25:active { border:0!important; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25:active , .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25 .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .udae786a276f1f50c9aa7ef54e7911b25:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Pitfall Of The Insensitive Essay If the standard information is taught thoroughly and correctly then it should be easy for the student to take a standardized test and come out equal to or ahead of set standards. A Norm-Referenced test compare a person?s score against the scores of a group of people who have already taken the same exam, called the ?norming group.? A NRT (Norm-Referenced Test) is designed to ?rank-order? test takers, or compare students? scores. To make comparing easier, exams are created in which the results end up graphed in a bell-like .